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RFC 5992 - Internationalized Domain Names Registration and Administration Guidelines for European Languages Using Cyrillic

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Independent Submission S. Sharikov Request for Comments: 5992 Regtime Ltd Category: Informational D. Miloshevic ISSN: 2070-1721 Afilias J. Klensin October 2010
Internationalized Domain Names Registration and Administration Guidelines for European Languages Using Cyrillic Abstract This document is a guideline for registries and registrars on registering internationalized domain names (IDNs) based on (in alphabetical order) Bosnian, Bulgarian, Byelorussian, Kildin Sami, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian languages in a DNS zone. It describes appropriate characters for registration and variant considerations for characters from Greek and Latin scripts with similar appearances and/or derivations. Status of This Memo This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes. This is a contribution to the RFC Series, independently of any other RFC stream. The RFC Editor has chosen to publish this document at its discretion and makes no statement about its value for implementation or deployment. Documents approved for publication by the RFC Editor are not a candidate for any level of Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5992. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 1] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1. Similar Characters and Variants . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Languages and Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.1. Bosnian and Serbian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2. Bulgarian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3. Byelorussian (Belarusian, Belarusan) . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.4. Kildin Sami . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.5. Macedonian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.6. Montenegrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.7. Russian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.8. Serbian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.9. Ukrainian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3. Language-Based Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. Table Processing Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5. Table Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6. Steps after Registering an Input Label . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Appendix A. European Cyrillic Character Tables . . . . . . . . . 13 1. Introduction Cyrillic is one of a fairly small number of scripts that are used, with different subsets of characters, to write a large number of languages, some of which are not closely related to the others. When those languages might be used together in a zone (typical of generic TLDs (gTLDs) but likely in other zones both at and below the root), special considerations for intermixing characters may apply. Cyrillic also has the property that, while it is usually considered a separate script from the Latin (Roman) and Greek ones, it shares many characters with them, creating opportunities for visual confusion. Those difficulties are especially pronounced when "all of Cyrillic" is used rather than only the characters associated with a particular language. This specification provides guidelines for the use of Cyrillic, as encoded in Unicode [Unicode52] with internationalized domain name (IDN) labels derived from most "European" languages that use the script (use of the term "European" is a convenience, since there is disagreement about the relevant boundaries for different purposes and, of course, much of Russia lies within geological Asia). Specifically, it covers (in alphabetic order) Bosnian, Bulgarian, Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 2] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 Byelorussian, the Kildin member of the Sami (often written "Saami") language family, Macedonian, Montenegrin, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian. Supplemental tables, based on information in the Unicode Standard and a recently completed Montenegrin government standard [MontenegrinChars] are provided for use with Montenegrin. Moldovan is no longer in official use with Cyrillic script: no registrations are considered likely in Cyrillic, at least within the relevant ccTLD, and it is not further discussed in this document. Languages of Asia that use Cyrillic are not considered here and should be the subject of separate specifications. While Cyrillic script is the primary one used for many of the relevant languages and countries, Latin script is often used instead of, or in combination with, it. Standard keyboards used in most of the countries have both Cyrillic and Latin characters. Therefore, some registries could use Latin scripts for domain name registration in their zones. From time to time, some registries and users have claimed that there is a requirement for mixing Cyrillic and Latin characters in the same label. We strongly recommend against such mixing as user confusion is almost certain to result. In addition, registries that support many scripts will probably encounter the need to support labels in Greek or Latin scripts as well as Cyrillic, and a large number of character forms are shared among those three scripts. Because the DNS has no way for the end user to distinguish among the languages that might have been used to inspire a particular label, it seems useful to treat the characters of a large number of languages that use Cyrillic in their writing systems together, rather than trying to differentiate them. The discussion and tables in this specification should provide a foundation for developing more restrictive rules for zones in which only a single language is likely to be used, but it does not specify those language-specific rules. Readers of this document should be aware that its recommendations are about use in DNS labels. The orthography for some of the languages involved, especially Kildin Sami, is not completely standardized and local usage sometimes permits substitution of Latin-based characters for their Cyrillic equivalents. Unless they are required by official orthographies, those substitutions should generally be avoided in DNS labels because of the risk of additional user confusion with the Latin characters that are visually similar. 1.1. Similar Characters and Variants For some human languages, there are characters and/or strings that have equivalent or near-equivalent meanings. If someone is allowed to register a name with such a character or string, the registry Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 3] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 might want to automatically register all the names that have the same meaning in that language. Further, some registries might want to restrict the set of characters to be registered for language-based reasons. So-called "variant techniques", introduced in the JET specification for the CJK script [RFC3743] and its generalization [RFC4290], describe ways of registering IDNs to decrease the risk of misunderstandings, cybersquatting, and other forms of confusion. The tables below (Appendix A) identify confusable characters in Latin and Greek scripts that might be easily confused with Cyrillic ones. As with variant approaches for other scripts (e.g., see RFC 4713 [RFC4713] for the Chinese language or RFC 5564 [RFC5564] for the Arabic language), this document identifies sets of characters that need special consideration and provides information about them. A registry that handles names using these characters can then make a policy decision about how to actually handle them. The options for those policy decisions would include automatically registering all look-alike strings to the same registrant, registering one such string and blocking the others, and so on. 1.2. Terminology The terminology that follows is derived from the JET specification for the CJK script [RFC3743] and its generalization [RFC4290], but this specification does not depend on them. All characters listed here have been verified to be "PVALID" under the IDNA2008 specification [RFC5890] [RFC5892]. A "string" is a sequence of one or more characters. This document discusses characters that have equivalent or near- equivalent characters or strings. The "base character" is the character that has one or more equivalents; the "variant(s)" are the character(s) and/or string(s) that are equivalent to the base character. A "registration bundle" is the set of all labels that comes from expanding all base characters for a single name into their variants. A registry is the administrative authority for a DNS zone. That is, the registry is the body that makes and enforces policies that are used in a particular zone in the DNS. The term "registry" applies to all zones in the DNS, not only those that exist at the top level. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 4] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 2. Languages and Characters In the interest of clarity and balance, this document describes a "Base Cyrillic" set of 23 characters for use in comparing the character usage for Russian and Central European languages that use Cyrillic. The balance of this section compares the character usage of the individual languages in that group. "Base Cyrillic" consists of the following Unicode code points (names associated with these code points and those below appear in Appendix A): U+0430, U+0431, U+0432, U+0433, U+0434, U+0435, U+0436, U+0437, U+043A, U+043B, U+043C, U+043D, U+043E, U+043F, U+0440, U+0441, U+0442, U+0443, U+0444, U+0445, U+0446, U+0447, U+0448. In addition, modern writing systems that use Cyrillic do not have digits separate from the "European" ones used with Latin characters. For registries that permit digits to appear in domain name labels, the "Base Cyrillic" code point listed above should be considered to include U+0030, U+0031, U+0032, U+0033, U+0034, U+0035, U+0036, U+0037, U+0038, and U+0039 (Digit Zero, and Digit One through Digit Nine). The Hyphen-Minus character (U+002D) may also be used. It is worth noting that the EU top-level domain registry allows Cyrillic registrations using 32 code points [EU-registry]. That list is sufficient for some of the languages listed here but not for others. The individual languages that are the focus of this specification are discussed below (in English alphabetical order). 2.1. Bosnian and Serbian Bosnian and Serbian have 30 letters in the alphabet and the additional seven characters to the base of 23 shared Cyrillic characters: U+0438, U+0458, U+0452, U+0459, U+045A, U+045B, U+045F. 2.2. Bulgarian The Bulgarian alphabet has 30 characters, seven in addition to the basic 23: U+0438, U+0439, U+0449, U+044A, U+044C, U+044E, U+044F. 2.3. Byelorussian (Belarusian, Belarusan) The Byelorussian (now often spelled Belarusian or Belarusan) alphabet has 32 characters, i.e., nine characters in addition to the Base Cyrillic set of 23 characters: U+0451, U+0456, U+0439, U+044B, U+044C, U+045E, U+044D, U+044E, U+044F. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 5] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 2.4. Kildin Sami The phonetics of the Kildin Sami are quite complex and not easily represented in Cyrillic (see, e.g., Kertom's work [Kert]). The orthography is not standardized and the writing system may best be thought of as an attempt to transcribe the language phonetically (primary in Latin script in the 1930s but in Cyrillic more recently). Different scholars have reported different numbers of phonemes, further complicating the transcription process. Kertom identifies 53 consonants with long-short distinctions and, in many cases, hard-soft ones. He also identifies ascending and descending diphthongs and one triphthong as well as more common short and long vowels. The primary reference for Kildin Sami, widely circulated for some time but only in draft, is apparently used by Sami language(s) experts in Scandinavian countries [Riessl07]. It, and the references it cites, uses 56 characters, 33 of which do not appear in the basic set. Eight* of these characters have no precomposed forms in Unicode and hence must be written as a sequence of two code points with the second one being COMBINING MACRON (U+0304). Using parentheses to make the two-code-point sequences more obvious, the additional characters are: (U+0430 U+0304)*, (U+0435 U+0304)*, U+0438, U+0439, (U+043E U+0304), U+044A, U+044B, (U+044B U+0304), U+044C, U+044D, (U+044D U+0304), U+044E, (U+044E U+0304), U+044F, (U+044F U+0304), U+0451, (U+0451 U+0304), U+0458, U+048B, U+048D, U+048F, U+04BB, U+04C6, U+04C8, U+04CA, U+04CE, U+04D3, U+04E3, U+04E7, U+04ED, U+04EF, U+04F1, U+04F9. * These characters, CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A (U+0430) with a COMBINING MACRON (U+0304) and CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE (U+0435) with a COMBINING MACRON (U+0304), respectively, have the same visual appearance as LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH MACRON (U+0101) and LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH MACRON (U+0113). There are no known keyboards designed specifically for Kildin Sami. If an extended Latin-based keyboard and associated software are used, these characters might appear with the code point based on Latin (e.g., U+0113 for the second case). By contrast, keyboards and input software that are designed to be more Cyrillic-friendly are more likely to produce code points for the Cyrillic base characters. The use of a Latin character base for that second case occurs in some Western European sources including Riessler's work [Riessl07]. While we have not found explicit substitutions for A with Macron, we believe they might be found in practice. These alternatives are not mapped together by Unicode Normalization Form C (NFC) (or Normalization Form KC (NFKC)), so registries, and possibly applications software, should exercise some care about Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 6] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 these coding variations. However, U+0101 and U+0113 are Latin Script characters so, if either is used, any tests on homogeneity of the script within a label need to be made with care. Similar issues may apply to other Kildin Sami characters constructed with combining sequences. The key references in Russian ([Anto90], [Kert86], [Kuru85]) all propose slightly different character tables relative to each other and to Riessler's list. Because the latter list appears to be more comprehensive and to represent more recent scholarship, we have based the tables in this document on it. We recommend, however, that registries review these recommendations and the relevant papers should registration requests for Kildin Sami actually appear. Additional perspectives on Kildin Sami can be found on the Omniglot Sami pages [OmniglotSaami]. 2.5. Macedonian Macedonian has 31 characters in the alphabet. This is eight in addition to the basic set: U+0438, U+0458, U+0452, U+0459, U+045A, U+045C, U+045F, U+0491, U+0455. 2.6. Montenegrin According to the most recent, and now final, government specification [MontenegrinChars], Montenegrin has 32 characters in its alphabet, including two that have no precomposed forms in Unicode. This is nine in addition to the basic set and two in addition to Bosnian and Serbian: U+0437 U+0301, U+0438, U+0441 U+0301, U+0452, U+0458, U+0459, U+045A, U+045B, U+045F. See Bosnian, Section 2.1, above. 2.7. Russian The current Russian alphabet has 33 characters, consisting of the Base Cyrillic set plus an additional ten characters: U+0451, U+0438, U+0439, U+0449, U+044A, U+044B, U+044C, U+044D, U+044E, U+044F. 2.8. Serbian See Bosnian, Section 2.1, above. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 7] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 2.9. Ukrainian The character list for modern Ukrainian has apparently not completely stabilized. Some references claim 31 characters and therefore an additional 8 characters to the Base Cyrillic set of 23. Others claim 33, adding U+0438 and U+0439 and replacing U+044A (Hard Sign) with U+044C (Soft Sign), for a total of an additional 11 characters as compared to the Base Cyrillic set. Unless better information is available, the prudent registry should probably assume that all 34 characters are in use, i.e., the Base Cyrillic set plus U+0438, U+0439, U+0454, U+0456, U+0457, U+0491, U+0449, U+044A, U+044C, U+044E, U+044F. 3. Language-Based Tables The registration strategy described in this document uses a table that lists all characters allowed for input and any variants of those characters. Note that the table lists all characters allowed, not only the ones that have variants. 4. Table Processing Rules The input to the process is called the "input label". The output of the process is either failure (the input label cannot be registered at all), or a registration bundle that contains one or more labels in A-label form. 5. Table Format The table in Appendix A consists of four columns. The first and second identify the Cyrillic character, and the third and fourth identify Latin or Greek characters that might be easily confused with them visually. If both a Latin and Greek character are present, the Greek one appears in the third and fourth columns on the subsequent line (with "..." in the first column to indicate more information about the character specified on the previous line). Variants needed only because of case folding are shown with "+++" in the first column, as noted in the table. Each character in the table is given in the "U+" notation for Unicode characters followed, in the next column, by its name as shown in the Unicode Standard. For easy reference, the characters are listed in the order in which they appear in the Unicode Standard. The table does not, and any future revision MUST NOT, have more than one entry for a particular base character. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 8] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 6. Steps after Registering an Input Label A registry has at least three policy options for handling the cases where the registration bundle has more than one label. These options, and their key implications, are: o Allocate all labels to the same registrant, making the zone information identical to that of the input label. This option will cause end users to be able to find names with variants more easily, but will result in larger zone files. In principle, the zone file could become so large that it could negatively affect the ability of the registry to perform name resolution. o Block all labels so they cannot be registered in the future. This option does not increase the size of the zone file, but it may cause end users to not be able to find names with variants that they would expect. o Allocate some labels and block some other labels. This option is likely to cause the most confusion with users because including some variants will cause a name to be found, but using other variants will cause the name to be not found. With any of these three options, the registry MUST keep a database that links each label in the registration bundle to the input label. This link needs to be maintained so that changes in the non-DNS registration information (such as the label's owner name and address) are reflected in every member of the registration bundle as well. 7. Security Considerations The information provided in this document may assist DNS zone administrators and registrants in selecting names that are less likely to be confused with others and in adopting policies that help avoid confusion. It may also assist user-interface designers in identifying possible areas of confusion so that they can better protect users. The document otherwise has no consequences for the security of the Internet. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 9] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 8. Acknowledgments Support from Afilias for a major portion of this work is appreciated. The material on Kildin Sami would not have been possible without the efforts of Cary Karp for his help directly and his pointer to Riessler's work [Riessl07] and from Vladimir Shadrunov and Sergey Nikolaevich Teryoshkin for their own analyses and references ([Anto90], [Kert86], and [Kuru85]) and partial translations from them. We are grateful for their efforts that facilitated treating it nearly the same way as other actively used European languages that use Cyrillic script. Careful reading of late drafts of this document by Bill McQuillan, Alexey Melnikov, and Peter Saint-Andre, identified a number of editorial problems, some of which might not have been caught otherwise. 9. References 9.1. Normative References [RFC5895] Resnick, P. and P. Hoffman, "Mapping Characters in Mapping Characters for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) 2008", RFC 5895, September 2010. [Unicode52] The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 5.2.0, defined by: "The Unicode Standard, Version 5.2.0", (Mountain View, CA: The Unicode Consortium, 2009. ISBN 978-1-936213-00-9). <http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.2.0/>. 9.2. Informative References [Anto90] Antonova, A., "Primer for Sami schools first grade: Sami language, 2nd edition", Leningrad: Prosveshchenie, Leningrad department, 1990. Published in Russian, no authoritative translation is known. [EU-registry] European Registry of Internet Domain Names (EURid), ".eu Supported Characters", January 2010, <http://www.eurid.eu/en/ eu-domain-names/technical-limitations/ supported-characters>. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 10] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 [Kert] Kertom, G., "Kildin dialect of the Sami language". Published in Russian, no authoritative translation is known. [Kert86] Kertom, G., "Sami-Russian and Russian-Sami dictionary: textbook for primary school pupils", Leningrad: Prosveshchenie Leningrad Department, 1986. Published in Russian, no authoritative translation is known. [Kuru85] Kuruch, R., "Sami-Russian dictionary: eight thousand words", Moscow: Russkiy yazyk, 1985. Published in Russian, no authoritative translation is known. [MontenegrinChars] Crna Gora Ministarstvo prosvjete i nauke (Ministry of Science and Education, Montenegro), "Pravopis Crnogorskoga Jezika I", 2009, <http://www.gov.me/files/1248442673.pdf>. In Montenegrin, no known English translation. See especially the table on page 8. [OmniglotSaami] Ager, S., "Sami (Saami)", 2009, <http://www.omniglot.com/writing/saami.htm>. [RFC3743] Konishi, K., Huang, K., Qian, H., and Y. Ko, "Joint Engineering Team (JET) Guidelines for Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) Registration and Administration for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean", RFC 3743, April 2004. [RFC4290] Klensin, J., "Suggested Practices for Registration of Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)", RFC 4290, December 2005. [RFC4713] Lee, X., Mao, W., Chen, E., Hsu, N., and J. Klensin, "Registration and Administration Recommendations for Chinese Domain Names", RFC 4713, October 2006. [RFC5564] El-Sherbiny, A., Farah, M., Oueichek, I., and A. Al-Zoman, "Linguistic Guidelines for the Use of the Arabic Language in Internet Domains", RFC 5564, February 2010. [RFC5890] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework", RFC 5890, August 2010. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 11] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 [RFC5892] Faltstrom, P., "The Unicode Code Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)", RFC 5892, August 2010. [Riessl07] Riessler, M., "Kola Saami character chart (draft)", November 2007. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 12] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 Appendix A. European Cyrillic Character Tables These tables are constructed on the basis of the characters that can actually occur in the DNS, i.e., those that are valid in U-labels as defined in RFC 5890. If the characters that can be mapped into those characters are to be considered instead, then the number of variants would increase considerably. For example, while CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A (U+0430) and GREEK SMALL LETTER ALPHA (U+03B1) are readily distinguished visually, their capital letter equivalents are not, so, if case mappings such as those discussed in the IDNA2008 Mapping document [RFC5895] are considered, the two small letters must be considered variants of each other. Some of the variants have been selected on the assumption that unusual fonts may be used and that users will see what they expect to see; others, involving subtle decorations but considered more far-fetched out of context, have not been listed. These additional, possibly required, variants are shown below with "+++" in the first column of the table. "..." in the first column is used to indicate more information about the character specified on the previous line. Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 13] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 Characters needed for European languages, other than Montenegrin and Sami, written in Cyrillic. +----------+--------------------------+---------+-------------------+ | Cyrillic | Unicode Name | Variant | Unicode Name | | Char | | | | +----------+--------------------------+---------+-------------------+ | U+0430 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A | U+0061 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER A | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03B1 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER ALPHA | | | | | | | U+0431 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BE | | | | | | | | | U+0432 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER VE | U+0062 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER B | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03B2 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER BETA | | | | | | | U+0433 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | U+0072 | LATIN SMALL | | | GHE | | LETTER R | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03B3 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER GAMMA | | | | | | | U+0434 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DE | | | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03B4 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER DELTA | | | | | | | U+0435 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE | U+0065 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER E | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03B5 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER EPSILON | | | | | | | U+0436 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | ZHE | | | | | | | | | U+0437 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZE | | | | | | | | | U+0438 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I | U+0075 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER U | | | | | | | U+0439 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | SHORT I | | | Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 14] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 | | | | | | U+043A | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KA | U+006B | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER K | | | | | | | ... | | U+03BA | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER KAPPA | | | | | | | U+043B | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EL | | | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03BB | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER LAMBDA | | | | | | | U+043C | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EM | U+006D | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER M | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03BC | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER MU | | | | | | | U+043D | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EN | U+0048 | LATIN CAPITAL | | | | | LETTER H | | | | | | | +++ | | U+0068 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER H (in some | | | | | fonts) | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03B7 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER ETA | | | | | | | U+043E | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O | U+006F | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER O | | | | | | | ... | | U+03BF | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER OMICRON | | | | | | | U+043F | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PE | U+006E | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER N | | | | | | | ... | | U+03C0 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER PI | | | | | | | U+0440 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ER | U+0070 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER P | | | | | | | ... | | U+03C1 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER RHO | | | | | | | U+0441 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ES | U+0063 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER C | Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 15] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 | | | | | | U+0442 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TE | U+0074 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER T | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03C4 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER TAU | | | | | | | U+0443 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U | U+0079 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER Y | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03C5 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER UPSILON | | | | | | | U+0444 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EF | U+03D5 | GREEK PHI SYMBOL | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03C6 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER PHI | | | | | | | U+0445 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HA | U+0078 | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER X | | | | | | | ... | | U+03C7 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER CHI | | | | | | | U+0446 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | TSE | | | | | | | | | U+0447 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | CHE | | | | | | | | | U+0448 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | SHA | | | | | | | | | U+0449 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | SHCHA | | | | | | | | | U+044A | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | U+0062 | LATIN SMALL | | | HARD SIGN | | LETTER B | | | | | | | U+044B | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | YERU | | | | | | | | | U+044C | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | U+0062 | LATIN SMALL | | | SOFT SIGN | | LETTER B | | | | | | | U+044D | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER E | | | | | | | | | U+044E | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YU | | | Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 16] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 | | | | | | U+044F | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YA | | | | | | | | | U+0451 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IO | U+00EB | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER E WITH | | | | | DIAERESIS | | | | | | | U+0452 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | DJE | | | | | | | | | U+0453 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | GJE | | | | | | | | | U+0454 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | U+03B5 | GREEK SMALL | | | UKRAINIAN IE | | LETTER EPSILON | | | | | | | U+0455 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | U+0073 | LATIN SMALL | | | DZE | | LETTER S | | | | | | | U+0456 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | U+0069 | LATIN SMALL | | | BYELORUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN I | | LETTER I | | | | | | | +++ | | U+03B9 | GREEK SMALL | | | | | LETTER IOTA | | | | | | | U+0457 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | U+03CA | GREEK SMALL | | | UKRAINIAN YI | | LETTER IOTA WITH | | | | | DIALYTIKA | | | | | | | +++ | | U+00EF | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER I WITH | | | | | DIAERESIS | | | | | | | U+0458 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER JE | U+006A | LATIN SMALL | | | | | LETTER J | | | | | | | ... | | U+03F3 | GREEK LETTER YOT | | | | | | | U+0459 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | LJE | | | | | | | | | U+045A | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | NJE | | | | | | | | | U+045B | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | TSHE | | | | | | | | Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 17] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 | U+045C | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | KJE | | | | | | | | | U+045D | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I | | | | | WITH GRAVE | | | | | | | | | U+045E | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | SHORT U | | | | | | | | | U+045F | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | DZHE | | | | | | | | | U+0491 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | U+0072 | LATIN SMALL | | | GHE WITH UPTURN | | LETTER R | | | | | | | U+04C2 | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER | | | | | ZHE WITH BREVE | | | +----------+--------------------------+---------+-------------------+ Additional characters needed for Montenegrin written in Cyrillic. +--------------+-----------------------------+---------+------------+ | Cyrillic | Unicode Name | Variant | Unicode | | Char | | | Name | +--------------+-----------------------------+---------+------------+ | U+0437 + | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZE | | | | U+0301 | WITH ACUTE | | | | | | | | | U+0441 + | CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ES | | | | U+0301 | WITH ACUTE | | | +--------------+-----------------------------+---------+------------+ Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 18] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 Additional characters needed for Kildin Sami written in Cyrillic. +----------+---------------------+----------+-----------------------+ | Cyrillic | Unicode Name | Variant | Unicode Name | | Char | | | | +----------+---------------------+----------+-----------------------+ | U+0430 + | CYRILLIC SMALL | U+0101 | LATIN SMALL LETTER A | | U+0304 | LETTER A WITH | | WITH MACRON | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | ... | | U+03B1 + | GREEK SMALL LETTER | | | | U+0304 | ALPHA WITH MACRON | | | | | | | U+0435 + | CYRILLIC SMALL | U+0113 | LATIN SMALL LETTER E | | U+0304 | LETTER IE WITH | | WITH MACRON | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | U+043E + | CYRILLIC SMALL | U+014D | LATIN SMALL LETTER O | | U+0304 | LETTER O WITH | | WITH MACRON | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | ... | | U+03BF + | GREEK SMALL LETTER | | | | U+0304 | OMICRON WITH MACRON | | | | | | | U+044B + | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | U+0304 | LETTER YERU WITH | | | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | U+044D + | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | U+0304 | LETTER E WITH | | | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | U+044E + | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | U+0304 | LETTER YU WITH | | | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | U+044F + | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | U+0304 | LETTER YA WITH | | | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | U+0451 + | CYRILLIC SMALL | U+00EB + | LATIN SMALL LETTER E | | U+0304 | LETTER IO WITH | U0304 | WITH DIAERESIS AND | | | MACRON | | MACRON | | | | | | | U+048B | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER SHORT I WITH | | | | | TAIL | | | | | | | | Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 19] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 | U+048D | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER SEMISOFT | | | | | SIGN | | | | | | | | | U+048F | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER ER WITH TICK | | | | | | | | | U+04BB | CYRILLIC SMALL | U+0068 | LATIN SMALL LETTER H | | | LETTER SHHA | | | | | | | | | U+04C6 | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER EL WITH TAIL | | | | | | | | | U+04C8 | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER EN WITH HOOK | | | | | | | | | U+04CA | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER EN WITH TAIL | | | | | | | | | U+04CE | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER EM WITH TAIL | | | | | | | | | U+04D3 | CYRILLIC SMALL | U+00E4 | LATIN SMALL LETTER A | | | LETTER A WITH | | WITH DIAERESIS | | | DIAERESIS | | | | | | | | | U+04E3 | CYRILLIC SMALL | U+016B | LATIN SMALL LETTER U | | | LETTER I WITH | | WITH MACRON | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | U+04E7 | CYRILLIC SMALL | U+00F6 | LATIN SMALL LETTER O | | | LETTER O WITH | | WITH DIAERESIS | | | DIAERESIS | | | | | | | | | U+04ED | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER E WITH | | | | | DIAERESIS | | | | | | | | | U+04EF | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER U WITH | | | | | MACRON | | | | | | | | | U+04F1 | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER U WITH | | | | | DIAERESIS | | | | | | | | Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 20] RFC 5992 Cyrillic IDNs October 2010 | U+04F9 | CYRILLIC SMALL | | | | | LETTER YERU WITH | | | | | DIAERESIS | | | +----------+---------------------+----------+-----------------------+ Authors' Addresses Sergey Sharikov Regtime Ltd Kalinina str.,14 Samara 443008 Russia Phone: +7(846) 979-9039 Fax: +7(846)979-9038 EMail: s.shar@regtime.net Desiree Miloshevic Afilias Oxford Internet Institute, 1 St. Giles Oxford OX1 3JS United Kingdom Phone: +44 7973 987 147 EMail: dmiloshevic@afilias.info John C Klensin 1770 Massachusetts Ave, #322 Cambridge, MA 02140 USA Phone: +1 617 491 5735 EMail: john-ietf@jck.com Sharikov, et al. Informational [Page 21]

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